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Chinese civil war helps consolidate Japanese claims on Mainland (I)

Coup places island nation under military rule

Tags: World War II


The 'good old days' of the pre-war years were by no means peaceful. For example, many European countries, had to deal with political unrest. Opposing groups attempted to oust each other forcibly (such as in the German province of Saxony, in Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the Balkan) while both Italy and Germany witnessed violence at the polls and social and political upheavals. Spain was ripped apart by civil war. Strongmen came and went in South America. Elsewhere, communists tried to gain power, while China went through serious internal conflicts with Japan flexing its muscle on the sideline, ready for a strike against the Mainland. The conservative party in Japan, backed by the military, gained power. India went through a test of wills with the British Empire. Short-lived disturbances signaled political unrest in the Dutch East Indies as well.


Nov 13, 1926 Communist-inspired revolt, led by the Partai Komunis Indonesia, causes disturbances on Western Java (Bantam). KNIL-forces take 300 prisoners to camp on New Guinea. Editorial in Nieuws van den Dag urges death penalty for rebels.

Dec 26 Upon his father Josjihito's death, Crown Prince Hirohito becomes Emperor of Japan after having served as Regent for over four years.


Jan 19, 1927 The British decide to send troops to China where a civil war threatens trade in coastal regions.
Feb 12 British army units debark in Shanghai.
Feb 19 The Chinese protest the British presence by calling a general strike in this Chinese harbour city.
Mar 21 The nationalist Kuomindang faction of Chiang Kai-shek takes Shanghai, forces the British out.
Mar 24 Chinese government troops vacate Nanking, as nationalists enter the city.
Apr 12 Chiang Kai-shek launches counter-revolution from Shanghai.
Apr 17 Japanese cabinet falls over disagreements involving the Chinese conflict, ultra-conservative baron Tanaka premier.
Apr 18 Chiang Kai-shek forms own government in Nanking, purges Kuomintang-movement of communists. Peking officials raid Soviet embassy, claim to have found documents which implicate Soviet support for nationalist-led rebels.
May 02 International Economic Conference opens in Geneva, 52 nations attend.
May 07 Germans rally against war-debt payments to the Allies, 65,000 gather in Berlin.
May 13 Stock market crash in Berlin: 'Black Friday.'
May 23 Geneva conference achieves little, adjourns.
May 27Japan military intervention in Chinese conflict; sides with Peking generals.
Jun 10 Dutch police raids homes of Indonesian students in Amsterdam and Leiden, takes entire archive of Hatta's Perhimpoenan Indonesia, a small but influential group which smuggles publication Indonesia Merdeka from the Netherlands to the Dutch East Indies.
Jun 15 American press baron Black, owner of Baltimore Sun, charters KLM-Fokker plane to fly to Batavia in what becomes the first intercontinental charter flight.
Jul 04 Civil engineer and Indonesian nationalist Sukarno forms Perserikatan (Partai) Nasional Indonesia (PNI) in Bandung.
Aug 01 Communist rebels led by Chou En-lai take garrison town of Nanchang.
Sep 23 Mao Tse-tung fails to take provincial capital Ch'ang-sha (Hunan) with his Red Army, manages to escape.
September Dutch police arrests Hatta, three other Indonesian students for illegal, political activities.
Oct 01 KLM-plane De Postduif leaves for Batavia on a third trial flight, Koppen, Frijns and Elleman man the flight deck.
Oct 28 De Postduif returns solely to Schiphol. KLM pronounces the flight, the first scheduled service, a success. Tumultuous welcome follows at Soesterberg.
December Soviets and Chiang Kai-shek have falling out over the his repressive measures against communist groups in Canton when Russian advisers are killed as well. Soviets break off relations.


May 25, 1928 Chinese communist armies of Tsoe Teh and Mao Tse-tung join at Hunan.
Jun 07 Assassins kill Chinese warlord Chang Tso-lin, dictator of Northern China.
Jun 15 Chang Kai-shek takes Tianjin, optimistically declares unification of China accomplished.
Jun 20 Chinese capital Peking falls to forces of nationalists, change name of city to Beibing.
Jul 25 Americans conclude accord with new Chinese government.
Oct 06 China gets new constitution, Chiang Kai-shek becomes president.
Nov 10 Hirohito sworn in as new Emperor of Japan.


Jan 07, 1929 Inauguration of telecommunication service between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies.
Mar 18 British authorities in India arrest 31 communist leaders.
Mar 28 Chiang Kai-shek consolidates power at Guomindang-congress, communist brutalities against peasants isolates left-wing.
May 19 Northern Chinese warlord Feng Yu-hsiang declares war on Chiang Kai-shek.
Jul 17 China takes control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway, Soviets protest move.
Aug 11 Chinese and Soviet troops trade gunfire over railway issue.
Oct 24 'Black Thursday,' stock market crashes.
Nov 18 Soviet troops invade Manchuria.
Dec 22 Chinese and Soviets end hostilities, the Soviets withdraw from Manchuria. Schedule conference to settle issues.
Dec 29 Dutch East Indies authorities arrest Sukarno and hundreds of fellow nationalists. Sukarno and three party leaders imprisoned.


Jan 26, 1930 Indian Congress Party president Nehru declares his country independent of British rule; Congress Party authorizes leader Gandhi to resume campaign of civil disobedience.
Feb 21 Liberals convincingly beat conservatives in Japanese elections, 273 to 174.
Mar 06 USA in grip of economic crisis, police scatters marching unemployed demonstrators.
Mar 12 Gandhi starts protest march against British monopoly of salt trade.
Apr 22 Maritime conference in London ends with accord to reduce naval fire power, regulates submarine warfare and curtails build-up of aircraft carrier strength. Japan becomes a signatory.
May 05 British governor Lord Irwin, concerned over successful 400-km protest march, orders arrest of Gandhi and thousands of his followers.
May 06 International pressure forces Japan to agree to Chinese tariff policies for starters to a three-year term, in return Japan gains important concessions on main export items.
May 16 China and France sign Indo-China treaty.
Jul 01 Britain agrees to Iraq's independence.
Aug 03 British troops and demonstrators clash in Bombay.
Sep 09 Chinese general Feng Yu-hsiang forms rival government.
Nov 15 Oceanic expedition to Dutch East Indies ends with the return of Hr Ms Snellius to Den Helder navy base.
Dec 02 Su0karno holds rousing nationalistic speech during trial at Bandung.
Dec 24 Sukarno gets four-year prison sentence, to be served near Bandung.
Dec 30 Chiang Kai-shek defeats northern Chinese warlords, starts campaign against communist troops.


Jan 25, 1931 British governor of India orders release of Gandhi; the independence leader receives heroes' welcome in Bombay.
Mar 05 Lord Irwin and Gandhi reach accord. Congress Party leader drops demand for full independence, shocks members.
Apr 02 Following the example of The Hague, Dutch East Indies government cuts salaries civil service by 10 percent.
Apr 30 Left-wing rebels from Chiang Kai-shek's army form counter government in Canton; communists consolidate their position elsewhere.
Sep 18 Explosion damages Japanese-owned railway property in Manchuria; Japanese troops intervene in Chinese civil war and occupy large areas of Manchuria.
Sep 22 League of Nations tries to mediate in Sino-Japanese conflict.
Sep 28 In several Chinese cities, crowds rally against Japanese occupation of Northern China.
Oct 24 League of Nations demands Japanese withdrawal from Manchuria.
Oct 30 Australia, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands and New Zealand favour status quo of military firepower.
Nov 04 Argentina, Germany, Great-Britain, Poland and Portugal support move to freeze defence ability.
Nov 07 Chinese communists form own government, Mao Tse-tung president.
Dec 11 Japan drops 'gold standard' for its currency. Dec 12 Supported by army officers, conservatives form government in Tokyo.
Dec 31 Dutch East Indies government releases Sukarno from prison.


Jan 02, 1932 Japan annexes Manchuria, renames it Manchukuo, installs vasal government.
Jan 04 Irwin's successor Lord Willingdon orders new arrest of Gandhi and many nationalists in India.
Jan 07 Americans vow to oppose Japan's vasal state of Manchukuo.
Jan 28 Japanese forces of 70,000 invade harbour city of Shanghai, meet stiff opposition. Dutch government orders Surabaya-based warship Van Galen (a 'torpedojager') to China.
Feb 15 League of Nations implores Japan to stop warfare in China. Japan counters with demands for pull-back of Chinese armies.
Mar 11 League of Nation agrees with Americans to deny recognition of Manchukuo.
Apr 19 League of Nations votes for principle of gradual disarmament.
May 05 China and Japan agree to peace treaty after heavy fighting.
May 15 Right-wing military officers kill 76-year-old Japanese premier Tsuyoshi Inukai.
May 26 Admiral Makoto Saito forms new extra-parliamentary cabinet in Tokyo.
Aug 16 Gandhi on hunger strike.
Oct 02 Report by League of Nations acknowledges Japanese interests in affairs of Manchuria, proposes Japanese and Chinese share responsibility.
Dec 06 League of Nations declares Japan the aggressor in its conflict with China.
Dec 09 Japanese forces invade the Chinese province of Jehol.
Dec 24 The third India round table conference in London ends with an accord for a federal government system and local autonomy.


Feb 10, 1933 Mutiny (to protest salary cuts of 10 percent) aboard Dutch navy ship De Zeven Provincien off the Sumatran coast ends when a navy plane drops bomb on ship, killing 23 sailors. Dutch socialists rally against government decision to use force.
Mar 27 Japan withdraws membership in protest over League of Nations' decision to declare the island nation the aggressor in its conflict with China.
Apr 26 In a general election, Dutch voters elect Indonesian politician Roestam Effendi of the Communistische Partij Holland (CPH) to the Second Chamber. Supporters and opponents of the Zeven Provincien mutineers increase support at the polls.
May 31 Japan and China suspend hostilities.
Jul 31 British authorities arrest Gandhi.
Aug 01 Police arrest Sukarno for publishing politically inflammatory articles.
Nov 29 Japan starts repressive measures against communists after disbanding their party.
Dec 30 KLM's Pelikaan (a Fokker F XVIII) receives a tumultuous welcome at Schiphol after setting record time on her return flight from Batavia where the crew delivered 81,000 pieces of Christmas mail.


Jan 20, 1934 Japan declares its 'guest' Henry Pu Yi (till 1911 Emperor of China) Emperor of occupied Manchuria.
Jun 11 Genevan disarmament negotiations end in total failure.
Oct 18 Mao Tse-tung and his Red Army start their 'Long March' to escape opponent Chiang Kai-shek.
Oct 24 After several stop-overs (also one at Batavia), KLM DC2 (Uiver) arrives after 90 hours and 22 minutes in second place in a captivating race from London-Melbourne.
Nov 21 Pioneers of passenger air travel receive publicity boost with the tumultuous welcome at Schiphol of the by now legendary Uiver-crew.
Dec 19 Japan withdraws signature from 1922 and 1930 Washington treaties which regulated naval strength reduction of participants.


Mar 23, 1935 Soviets sell interest in Manchurian railways to Japan.
Jun 09 Japan forces China to remove anti-Japanese forces from Hopei.
Aug 02 British reforms to Government of India Act receives royal assent in London.
Aug 13 Dutch National Socialist-leader Mussert completes three-week journey through Dutch East Indies. After two visits to Governor-General De Jonge, Mussert receives send-off from 10,000 supporters.
Oct 19 Chinese Red Army reaches destination with only 10,000 men of the original 80,000, after having covered 10,000 km in the year-long march.
Nov 15 The commonwealth (with the west) of the Philippines installs its first president, Manuel Quezon y Malina.


Feb 26, 1936 Right-wing officers depose Japanese government, kill several ministers in coup.
Mar 09 New Japanese premier, Koki Hirota, forms military-dominated cabinet.
Mar 25 Second Naval Conference of London ends with Great Britain, France and the USA agreeing on disarmament, Japan and Italy pulled out earlier.
Oct 01 During peace negotiations, Japan lists numerous demands but China's Chiang Kai-shek refuses to comply.
Nov 25 Germany and Japan sign pact to fight international communism.
Dec 26 Chinese generals release recently kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek after he agrees to join communists to fight Japanese invaders.

Ideology foundation of Japanese imperialism

Asia engulfed in armed conflict to satisfy Nippon's goals

Many Japanese civilians had mixed feelings about their military leaders' drive for conquests. These reservations were shared by some junior officers who staged an - unsuccessful - coup in 1936. After that attempt, the opposition kept quiet while the country went on its disastrous course. By 1940, encouraged by Germany's 'success', the Japanese became bolder than ever and announced policies which were extremely racist in nature as well as very nationalistic; to the detriment of Europeans and Asians alike. General Kingoro Hashimoto gave a clear synopsis: 'Japan's national structure is the highest principle of mankind'. Described as hakko ichiu 1), 'All the countries then form an organic unity, with Japan as brains, growing and developing as a living being under the supreme guidance of His Excellency the Emperor'. At first, the Japanese hoped that indigenous peoples in South East Asia would revolt against the various colonial powers - and then fill the political void. When that did not happen, Japanese rulers decided to impose their ideology by force. Foreigners needed to be purged from Asian society and (their) religion controlled. This process got soon underway after Nippon established its rule in a given area. In the process, non-Asians were brutalized along with Asians 2), but the Chinese were punished more severely than anyone else.


Jan 07, 1937 Upon the wedding of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard, Dutch authorities release many prisoners, including mutineers of De Zeven Provincien . Newly-wed pair receives precious jewellery from the Dutch East Indies.
Feb 20 State elections in India lead to landslide victory for Congress Party.
Feb 23 Chinese nationalist congress votes against deal to join with communists to fight against Japan.
Jun 01 Reactionary right-wing Prince Konoe Fumimaro assumes premier's post in Japan.
Jul 07 Military clash between Japanese and Chinese soldiers on Bejing's Marco Polo bridge. Japan steps up military campaign.
Jul 29 Japan takes control of Northern China with capture of industrial centre Tianjin.
Aug 14 China declares war on Japan. Chinese evacuate millions to hinterland.
Aug 25 Japanese fleet begins blockade of Chinese harbours.
Sep 10 Chinese Red Army swears allegiance to Chiang Kai-shek, joins battle against Japanese invaders.
Oct 03 In a series of moves, the Japanese launch a new invasion of China, close in on Nanking.
Nov 03 Japan boycotts international mediation attempt by Belgian Foreign Affairs minister, Paul Henri Spaak.
Nov 09 Japanese forces take Shanghai.
Dec 14 Nanking falls. Troops plunder city and go on a killing rampage: reports claim up to 350,000 dead.


Jan 01, 1938 Chiang Kai-shek relinquishes political duties, remains army commander.
Jan 16 Japanese premier Konou, refuses to negotiate with Chinese nationalists.
Mar 28 Japan installs Chinese vasal government in Nanking.
Jun 11 Chinese army blows up dam in the Yellow River, frustrating pursuit by Japanese; thousands of civilians drown in the floods, 1,4 million evacuate.
Jun 17 Japan formally declares war on China.
Jul 11 Japan causes border clashes with Soviet troops at the Manchurian-Korean border.
Aug 10 Soviet Union and Japan declare a truce in their armed conflict.
Sep 27 League of Nations declares Japan to be the aggressor in Sino-Japanese conflict.
Oct 02 Japan withdraws from the League of Nations.
Oct 25 Chinese industrial centre and temporary seat of the government Wuhan falls to the Japanese army. Soviets-Japanese air battles over city.
Nov 03 Japan announces its new doctrine for South-East Asia.
Nov 16 In a royal decree, the Soetardjo-Petition which advocates governmental reforms in the Dutch East Indies, gets torpedoed.


May 15, 1939 The Dutch government releases its Hart-commission report, recommending very few changes to government system in the Dutch East Indies.
Jun 13 The Soviets grant $150 million credit to the Chinese government for weapon and ammunition purchases.
Jun 14 Japanese forces cut lines to British and French concessions at Tianjin, on the Chinese coast.
Jul 26 The US cancels its 1911 trade treaty with Japan.
Aug 20 General Zhukov leads Red Army to a victory over Japanese on the Manchurian border with Outer Mongolia.
Sep 01 Germany ignores British and French dire warnings not to attack Poland, invades neighbour to the east anyway.
Sep 03 World War II starts when Great Britain and France make good on threat and declare war on Germany. Chamberlain forms war cabinet with Churchill responsible for the Royal Navy.
Sep 04 Belgium and the Netherlands declare their neutrality. Dutch parliament passes the Mobilisation Bill and the War Measures Act.
Sep 05 USA announces its neutrality.
Oct 10 Chinese government warns it will not recognize Japanese vasal states after rumours abound of a Chinese separatist-nationalist general forming a third regional vasal government in Japanese-held territory.
October South Africa, Canada, Iraq and Saudi Arabia declare war on Germany. Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Germany and the USA amends its Neutrality Act to end its weapon embargo against Britain and France.
December First Indonesian People's Congress ends.


Feb 01, 1940 Japan's cabinet allocates half of the country's budget for its military.
May 10 Germany attacks Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Churchill named prime minister a war cabinet. Governor General Van Starkenborgh invokes War Measures Act for the Dutch East Indies; starts arresting German nationals and members of the Dutch Nazi movement, NSB.
May 15 Except for Zeeland, Dutch forces capitulate. Germany invades France. Van Starkenborgh holds speech in which he predicts that the Netherlands will rise again.
Jun 15 In his opening speech at the Indies Council, Van Starkenborgh rejects political demands by Indonesian nationalists.
Jun 23 The governor general appoints Commission Visman to study ....
Jul 18 Pressured by Japan, the British close Burma supply road to China.
Sep 12 Japanese delegation arrives in Batavia for talks on economic issues.
Sep 19 Japan announces a 'common prosperity circle' which, they claim, includes the Dutch East Indies.
Sep 26 Japan sends troops to northern part of French Indo China.
Sep 27 Germany, Italy and Japan announce new Axis treaty.
Oct 18 Britain reopens Burma road to China.
Oct 30 Van Starkenborgh urges London's Dutch government-in-exile to settle for peace with Japan.
Dec 06 Chinese Communists in guerrilla campaign behind Japanese lines.


Jan 16, 1941 Armed conflict arises between French Indo China and Thailand.
Jan 31 Japan 'brokers' a truce between Indo Chinese and Thai authorities.
Apr 12 Two Dutch cabinet ministers - Van Kleffens and Welter - fly to Batavia for an orientation visit.
Apr 13 The Soviets sign neutrality accord with the Japanese.
Apr 21 American, British and Dutch officials hold secret security conference in Singapore.
Apr 22 Dutch cabinet re-appoints Van Starkenborgh as Governor General.
Jun 19 President Roosevelt signs the Two Ocean Navy Expansion Act.
Jun 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union.
June Italy, Rumania, Slovakia and Finland side with Germany and declare war on the Soviet Union.
Jul 26 Japan sends troops to Southern Indo China, Americans freeze Japanese bank accounts in the USA.
Jul 29 Vichy France agrees to Japanese control of Indo China. Dutch East Indies' government cancels oil-export accord with Japan, freezes bank accounts and suspends sea traffic. Britain also blocks bank accounts.
Aug 01 The USA announces oil embargo against Axis powers.
Aug 09 Roosevelt and Churchill hold conference on war ships off the Newfoundland coast.
Aug 16 The USA and the USSR agree to aid and trade treaty. Hitler tells Japanese ambassador that 'if a clash occurs... between Japan and the USA, Germany will at once declare war against the USA'.
Aug 25 British and Soviet troops occupy Persia when it refuses to move against German conspirators.
Oct 15 Japan gets new cabinet, Hideki Tojo premier.
Oct 19 Oshima offers to resign as ambassador to Berlin, a long-time, major source of intelligence for code-breaking American intelligence officers. New foreign affairs minister Togo want Oshima to stay.
Nov 06 Roosevelt approves $1 billion loan to the USSR.
Nov 07 Japan decides to attack Allied colonies, Hawaii and the Philippines.
Nov 13 Dutch East Indies army commander G.J. Berenschot dies in plane crash, Ter Poorten successor at KNIL.
Nov 20 Japan's ambassador Kitsjabuco Nomura and special minister Sabuko Kurusu hand Secretary of State Cordell Hull an ultimatum in Washington.
Nov 29 Americans fail to appreciate subtle hints by Tokyo's dispatches to Oshima of 'new developments in the South'.
Dec 07 Japanese fleet in a sneak attack, surprises Navy, defenders of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, navy base, killing 2400, destroying US 18 war ships and 350 planes.
Dec 08 The USA declares war on Japan; Britain and Dutch East Indies follow. Internment of Japanese immigrants in the Dutch East Indies gets underway. Japan attacks American bases in the Philippine archipelago, Singapore and lands troops in Northern Malaysia and Thailand.
Dec 09 China joins Allied camp, finally declares war on Japan.
Dec 15 British air force withdraws from Malaysia to Sumatra.
Dec 25 Japan captures Hong Kong after two-week long battle.
Dec 27 Japanese invaders occupy Tambelan Islands, Dutch territory, between Borneo and Singapore.
Dec 30 Indian Congress Party under its new president Nehru backs Britain in war with Axis. To defend Malaysia corridor, Roosevelt and Churchill decide to station American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (Abdacom) at Surabaja, appoint Lord Wavell commander.


Jan 01, 1942 No fewer than 26 countries sign Treaty of Washington, agree to first settle war in Europe and refrain from separate peace with Axis powers, while keeping Japan in check in Pacific region.
Jan 10 Japanese troops invade Northern Celebes, and Island of Tarakan off the Borneo coast. Dutch defenders destroy its oil installations.
Jan 24 Sakaguchi Brigade lands at Balikpapan, kills all Europeans in punishment for destruction of oil installations.
Feb 09 Makasar falls.
Feb 14 Japanese troops invade Southern Sumatra (Bangka), airborne units drop at Palembang's oil installations. Dutch Vice-Admiral Helfrich assumes Abda's Navy command.
Feb 15 Singapore capitulates, Japan captures 138,000 British and Australian soldiers.
Feb 16 Japan's premier Tojo reveals his country's goal to establish new order in Greater East Asia.
Feb 20 Roosevelt authorizes 100,000 West Coast Japanese Americans to be interned in camps in Utah and Colorado.
Feb 25 Abda command at Lembang dissolves.
Feb 27 Japanese navy convoy leaves Borneo for Java, Commander Doorman's Allied fleet targets enemy ships, attacks numerically superior Japanese and gets defeated in Battle of Java Sea, Doorman perishes.
Feb 28 Enemy troops land on Java. With Japanese onslaught, Abda command becomes history.
Mar 08 KNIL surrenders unconditionally to the invaders, fighting in New Guinea continues. Some KNIL units withdraw into mountains to start guerilla warfare.
Mar 09 Japanese army cuts Burma supply line to Chinese nationalist forces at news of Burmese surrender.
Mar 12 British and American troops in former Abdacom region surrender unconditionally.
Mar 17 Sukarno freed when Japanese units reach Fort de Kock on Sumatra.
Mar 27 Lt. Col. Gortmans surrenders near Enrekang (Borneo).
Mar 28 Major General Overakker with 2,000 men surrenders at Kutatjane (Northern Sumatra).
Apr 01 American Burma road commander withdraws to China.
Apr 09 Japanese fleet and air force attack Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), in small-scale repeat of Pearl Harbor. Because British navy takes to the sea, Japanese action fails.
Apr 15 Japanese units land on New Guinea, trek through jungle towards Port Moresby but fail to reach it.
Apr 18 First American air attack by squadron of B-25 bombers on Tokyo, four other cities.
Apr 22 Japanese begin round up of civil service members in Central and Eastern Java.
Apr 29 Indonesian collaborators recognize Japan as leader, light and protector of Asia. New masters introduce Japanese calender, 2602. May Invaders land on Banda, Sumba, Sumbawa and Flores, to complete sweep through archipelago. Only small part of New Guinea remains under Dutch control. Japan aims to cut supply lines between USA and Australia.
May 06 Last American stronghold on Philippines surrenders to Japanese.
May 07 Draw in Coral Sea, Americans stop Japanese fleet from blocking supply lanes between Hawaii and Australia after fierce aerial war between planes from aircraft carriers. Stalemate a psychological loss to Japan.
May 16 First transport of British and Dutch POW's to Burma gets underway.
May 21 Japanese disband two Indonesian nationalistic-Islamic parties.
Jun 05 Embarrassment for Japan: small American fleet surprises enemy at Midway, destroys large number of planes before Japanese recover. Japanese cancel plans for attack on Fiji. Historians call Battle of Midway turning point in war.
Jun 14 Internment of Europeans on Java begins.
Jun 15 Political parties outlawed on Java, press placed under Japanese control.
Aug 01, 1942 Dutch East Indies authorities-in-exile on Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) establish military Corps Insulinde with conscripts and volunteers.
Aug 07 American troops land on Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) where the Japanese - unprepared for the counter-offensive - were building landing strips for military aircraft.
Aug 13 Americans appoint Brigade-General Leslie R. Groves head of the top-secret Manhattan Engineer District, the developers of the atom bomb.
Aug 22 Brazil declares war on Axis powers, followed by Cuba five days later.
Sep 09 Japanese order all Caucasians in Batavia to report to specially designated 'safety zones' in the city, racial segregation starts, 'safety zones' nothing less but concentration camps.
Sep 10 British troops land on Madagascar, a neutral Portuguese colony off the African west coast, capital Tananarive occupied within weeks.
Sep 16 American resistance halts Japanese offensive towards Port Moresby, New Guinea. September First Allied prisoners of war arrive in Burma to build infamous railroad. First infiltrator sent by Dutch forces reaches occupied Java.
Oct 21 US government introduces Victory tax, a 5 percent levy on all incomes over $634.
Oct 25 Americans suffer heavy losses in two-day Santa Cruz Sea Battle (near Guadalcanal), but manage to hold off Japanese invasion.
October Japanese start deportation of Allied prisoners of war to home territory, arrest Roman Catholic missionaries working in Japan.
Nov 01 Tokyo creates department of Greater East Asia, appoint Kazuo Aoki minister.
Nov 06 Four leading Indonesian nationalists among them Sukarno form viermanschap to coordinate a new unity front Ampat Serangkai.
Nov 11 Military governor of Java, Hitoshi Imamura, replaced by Kumakashi Harada.
Nov 13 Another sea battle near Guadalcanal, again Americans suffer heavy losses but thwart Japanese effort to aid its trapped troops.
Dec 02 Atom physicist Enrico Fermi and his team successful with nuclear fusion tests.
Dec 07 Queen Wilhelmina commemorates first anniversary of war against Japan with Radio Orange broadcast, announces new policy for a liberated Dutch East Indies.
Dec 14 De Gaulle's Comite National Francais takes control of Madagascar.
Dec 15 Occupation authorities order arrest of all Salvation Army leaders in Dutch East Indies. Dutch East Indies 18th air force squadron moves to Darwin, Australia.


Jan 04, 1943 American resistance triumphs: imperial headquarters in Tokyo finally orders withdrawal from Guadalcanal and New Guinea.
Jan 10 Japan's Chinese vassal government in Nanking declares war on the USA and Great Britain.
Jan 31 Chile breaks with Axis powers.
Mar 02 American-Australian naval force wins Battle of Bismarck Sea, forcing Japanese withdrawal from Australian New Guinea.
Mar 08 Japan behind launch of second unity movement Putera, to motivate war-time collaboration with Japanese. Sukarno again one of four leaders.
Apr 18 Plane carrying Japanese admiral Yamamoto shot down over Solomon Islands.
May 31 Status Indonesia subject of Japanese conference.
Jun 04 Military coup against pro-fascist regime in Argentina sends President Ramon Castillo packing.
June 30 General MacArthur leads American and Australian troops in Operation Cartwheel, an island hopping maneuver in the Pacific Ocean to clear it of Japanese.
Aug 15 The Americans capture Aleutian Islands.
Aug 25 Allied commander Louis Lord Mountbatten establishes headquarters on Ceylon.
Oct 03 Under Japanese supervision, nationalists on Java form volunteer army Peta.
Oct 14 Japan grants Philippines partial independence, Laurel premier.
Oct 30 Allies agree on new international forum, United Nations, and decide to try war criminals after defeat of Germany and Japan. After heavy fighting, Americans take Tarawa atoll in the Gilbert Islands.
November POW's and other slave labour complete Burma railroad; work cost the lives of 12,000 POW's and many more Southeast Asian slaves.
December Dutch form 130th air force squadron.

Liberators largely by-passed Dutch East Indies

Allies focused war effort on Nippon's defeat and surrender

People in the free world followed with plenty of anxiety reports and news stories of numerous battles on faraway islands and distant seas. The Japanese steamroller literally got stuck in the jungle of New Guinea while the Americans at Midway brought the seemingly unstoppable enemy to a screeching halt. Very little of these events items filtered through to the camps where Caucasian civilians and POW's were being held. In fact, most of these victims of Japanese aggression were the last ones to hear of the surrender of Japan. The prisoners in the Indies' camps experienced none of the relief and joy of being liberated, as the one known oppressor was replaced by a largely invisible guerrilla tormentor. On Java alone, over 3,500 Caucasians and their sympathizers were brutally murdered in a sort period. Numerous others were waiting to be rescued while the nationalists and communists whipped up a political storm. As ever, clashing ideologies claimed plenty of lives.


Jan 30, 1944 Americans land on Marshall Islands.
Feb 14 Javanese at Blitar rebel against Japanese occupation.
Feb 21 Japanese premier Tojo becomes Chief of Staff as well, Osima Nagano naval commander.
Feb 24 Argentine military stages another coup, Peron new strongman.
Feb 28 British Indian forces clash with Japanese in Northern Burma.
Feb 29 Japanese kill four leftist Javanese resistance leaders at Batavia. Sukarno intercedes on behalf of a fifth condemned man, Sjarifoeddin whom he then appoints to his 'cabinet.'
Mar 04 Japan conscripts its students into army, closes night clubs and theatres.
Mar 15 Japanese troops cross border river Chindwin into India.
Apr 12 Exiled Governor General Van Mook appoints department heads for new administration in liberated Dutch East Indies.
Apr 19 Allied East Fleet for the first time attacks Japanese in North Sumatra harbour of Sabang.
Apr 22 Allies land near Hollandia on Dutch New Guinea.
May 02 Dutch civil servants return to New Guinea.
May 17 Allies establish a second beachhead, east of Hollandia, at Sarmi and Wakde. Dutch cruiser Tromp and American East Fleet attack Surabaya harbour but fail to inflict serious damage.
May 27 New Guinea theatre of war moves to Island of Biak when Allies land, forcing Japanese into mountains where guerrilla warfare continues. Papua fighters kill 1,800 Japanese soldiers over eight month period.
Jun 15 Americans land on Saipan (Marianan Islands).
Jun 18 Japanese suffer heavy losses in three-day naval and aerial Battle of Luzon.
Jul 02 Americans land on Island of Noemfoor off the north coast of New Guinea.
Jul 21 Saipan surrenders, bizarre mass suicide by Japanese civilians on island. General Koiso succeeds Tojo as premier of Japan.
Jul 25 After five days of very heavy fighting, including waves of suicide attacks by Japanese dive bombers, Americans take Guam. Allied East Fleet and Dutch cruiser Tromp attack harbour of Sabang a second time.
Jul 30 Americans establish third beachhead on New Guinea, at Sansapor (Vogelkop).
Aug 25 Allied East Fleet attack harbour and cement factory at Padang.
Sep 07 Premier Koiso promises Indonesia partial independence, membership in Japanese-led Greater East Asia League.
Sep 14 Dutch government names Van Mook interim Lt. Governor General.
Sep 15 Americans land on Island of Morotai, between Halmaheira and the Philippines.
Sep 18 Former Dutch premier Hendrik Colijn, who fought against Atjeh rebels in Northern Sumatra, dies in German captivity at age 75.
Sep 25 Australia agrees to host 30,000 Dutch soldiers if the Netherlands raises an army to liberate her colonies.
Oct 01 Dutch government-in-exile asks for volunteers to join new army formed in liberated territory to help free occupied areas, plans to open 13 recruitment offices in Southern Netherlands.
Oct 23 American navy decisively defeats enemy at Leyte (Philippines) in fierce three-day sea battle.
Dec 07 Americans bomb Tokyo and Manchurian city of Mukden.
Dec 10 MacArthur and Van Mook agree to a Civil Affairs Accord for the Dutch East Indies.
Dec 14 Allies bomb Rangoon and Bangkok.


Jan 09, 1945 Americans land on Luzon, Philippines, in Operation Mark I.
Jan 19 Bombers from Allied aircraft carriers cause extensive damage to oil refineries at Palembang, Sumatra.
Feb 16 Heavy aerial attacks on Tokyo. Venezuela follows Ecuador, Peru and Chile in declaring war on the Axis-powers.
Feb 19 After two months of constant bombing, American marines land on fortified volcano island Iwo Jima in what became known as one of the bloodiest places in the Pacific.
Feb 23 Marines raise American flag on Iwo Jima's Surabatji mountain. War in underground tunnels continues. Turkey's parliament declares war on Axis-powers, Syria and Egypt follow the next day. Professor dr. J.I.M.J. Schmutzer, a former hostage of the Germans in Vught, assumes cabinet portfolio for the colonies.
Feb 24 Philippines capital Manila free following fierce fighting.
Mar 04 Airstrip on Iwo Jima welcomes first American transport plane. Battle on northern tip of island continues unabated. Japanese suicide commando attacks continue.
Mar 09 After months of high-altitude, but ineffective bombing of Tokyo, Allies firebomb city overnight. Entire districts go up in flames.
Mar 10 Japan declares Vietnam partially independent. Vietnamese resistance continues war.
Mar 27 American finally clear Iwo Jima of enemy, Allied losses 25,000 dead and wounded. Aircraft carrier Saratoga hit by suicide bombers, 50 planes lost.
Apr 01 Americans land on Okinawa.
Apr 03 Allies decide to focus military strategy on forcing collapse of Japan's system, downgrade importance of Dutch East Indies and order MacArthur to not invade Java.
Apr 07 Japanese premier Koiso resigns, Admiral Kantaro Suzuki forms new cabinet.
Apr 12 Dutch-descended, war-leader and three-term American president Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of blood hemorrhaging in the brains, Truman sworn in as successor.
May 01 Australians, including a KNIL company of 160, land on N.E. Borneo, at Tarakan.
May 05 German command in The Netherlands surrenders. No relief in sight for Dutch East Indies.
Mid May British East Indian Fleet, helped by Tromp, torpedoes large Japanese cruiser.
Jun 01 Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno holds fiery speech before Japanese-sponsored Independence Commission of 64, articulates set of principles; 1) Nationalism, 2) Internationalism or the 'Menselijkheid', 3) Consultation or Democracy, 4) Social Justice, 5) Faith in God but summarizes it in the Mutual Help principle.
Jun 22 Americans clear island Okinawa of enemy after three months of fierce fighting; Japan refuses to end war. Japan looses 110,000 dead, Allies 12,500 and 37,000 wounded. Allied command estimates that 90 million Japanese will fight to their end, prepares invasion for 1946.
Jun 24 Socialist politician Schermerhorn replaces Gerbrandy as Dutch premier.
Jun 29 Truman agrees to November 1 invasion of Japan.
Jul 02 After weeks of artillery fire and bombing, Australians land at Balikpapan, on Borneo's east coast. Netherlands-Indies Civil Affairs representative Col. De Rooy wonders in his report about the necessity of massive destruction, advises superiors to take war to Japan.
Jul 05 MacArthur declares Philippines liberated.
Jul 11 Australian and Dutch troops liberate Balikpapan.
Jul 12 Blaming overextension of its war effort, the Australian government reneges on promise to temporarily accommodate Dutch troops on their way through to occupied Dutch colonial territory.
Jul 16 Americans try atom bomb in desert of New Mexico, tests successful.
Jul 18 The Dutch government requests access to Potsdam conference where leading Allies plan terms for peace and return to civilian rule in occupied territories.
Jul 26 In Potsdam, Churchill and Truman agree with Stalin on conditions for unconditional Japanese surrender; 1) Pull-back of all Japanese forces from foreign soil, 2) Disarmament of Japanese forces, 3) Dismantling of Japanese war industry, 4) Japanese territory to shrink to main four islands, 5) Allied occupation of strategic points in Japan, 6) Occupation to continue until after free elections and installation of peace-loving, democratic government. Churchill returns to London halfway through conference to tender resignation after learning about his party's defeat in a general election.
Aug 06 Americans drop atom bomb on Hirosjima, try for peace but get rebuffed.
Aug 09 Second atom bomb falls on Japanese city, this time on Nagasaki. Soviet army invades Manchuria.
Aug 10 Japanese command sends Allies memo, offering surrender and end to war based on Allied terms of Potsdam, providing these do not contain an infringement on emperor Hirohito's right as sovereign ruler.
Aug 15 Japan gets new cabinet Hikasjikuni. Emperor Hirohito for the first time ever holds a radio speech in which he announces his country's surrender. British commander Mountbattan assumes control over much of the Dutch East Indies, remainder under Australian jurisdiction.
Aug 17 Sukarno and Hatta declare Indonesia independent. Political vacuum in Batavia. Nationalists try to take control, unleash reign of terror in many locations. Camp survivors unsafe outside of camp sites, joy over war's ending brings new trouble, Bersiap period starts.
Aug 21 Japanese army command on Java decides to provide tacit support to Indonesian nationalists.
Aug 22 Cabinet-Schermerhorn orders Vice-Admiral Helfrich to report to Van Mook.
Aug 24 The Dutch and the British governments reach 'civil affairs agreement' for the Dutch East Indies, arranging orderly transfer of temporary military government to civil servants as soon as they arrive. Many concentration camps now under protection of Japanese soldiers.
Aug 28 MacArthur arrives in Japan.
Aug 31 Ambassador Van Aerssen underestimates anger at internment of Indonesian nationalists in New Guinea, envy at 'rich' colony, yearn for expanded Australian influence in region, lack of good Dutch p.r. and communist agitation against return of Dutch rule in the Indies. Australian politicians - including PM Chiflin - boycott reception in honour of Queen Wilhelmina's birthday.
Sep 01 Network of Indonesians in Australia issues declaration against return of Dutch rule in the Indies.
Sep 02 Japanese sign official surrender documents aboard American battle ship Missouri. Helfrich signs documents as the representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and raises flag on deserted embassy in Tokyo.
Sep 04 Van Mook and Van der Plas travel to Ceylon hold talks with Mountbatten. First nationalist self-appointed cabinet takes office.
Sep 08 Americans land in Korea.
Sep 09 Japanese in China surrender after causing the death of an estimated 3 million Chinese soldiers and 8 million civilians.
Sep 12 Japanese troops in Singapore surrender to Mountbatten. First Indonesian KNIL-members in Australia refuse service, get interned along with navy and merchant marine personnel for a total of 700.
Sep 15 British Rear-Admiral Patterson arrives with battle ship Cumberland before Batavia.
Sep 19 Nationalists hold large-scale demonstrations at the Ikada square in Batavia.
Sep 24 Australian communists, unions start boycott of Dutch ships in Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. Demand recognition of nationalist government on Java. Van Mook warns government in The Hague of repercussions. Australian authorities refuse army help to load ships.
Sep 26 Behind the scenes, British authorities decide not to take sides in dispute between the Dutch and the Indonesians. Indian Congress Party refuses to have its troops involved in conflict.
Sep 28 British troops - including some Dutch soldiers - led by general Christison land on Java and Sumatra, Sukarno receives warning to stop lawlessness of supporters.
Sep 29 Christison makes press statements which show bias towards nationalists. Australian Council of Trade Unions issues 'Hands off Indonesia' declaration, nationalists gain support of 1,5 million member labour movement.
Sep 30 Supporters (5,000) of Indonesian independence hold outdoor rally in Brisbane; in Melbourne a protest march.
Oct 01 Two ships, Karsik and Van Heutz, leave Brisbane without pilot and sufficient fuel.
Oct 01, 1945 The Dutch authorities refuse to negotiate with Sukarno whom they consider a war-time collaborator with the Japanese.
Oct 07 The Central National Indonesian Committee (CNIC) pressures Sukarno to recognize it as an interim parliament. Japan decides to drop Shintoism as its state religion.
Oct 10 In a meeting on Ceylon, Allied commander Mountbatten urges new Dutch East Indies governor Van Mook to open dialogue with Indonesian independence-leader Sukarno.
Oct 11 British admiral Mountbatten notifies London that Indonesian nationalists hold 100,000 Dutch citizens for ransom with Sukarno only guaranteeing another four days of safety.
Oct 13 Indonesian Peoples Army 'declares war' on the Netherlands, and on the Dutch, the Indos, Amboinese (and later the Chinese) in the archipelago, begins campaign of terror against former prisoners of Japanese camps. Thousands in Surabaya, Buitenzorg and Bandung now jailed by nationalists. British troops settle in Bandung, their third stronghold after Padang and Medan. In Northern China communists clash with nationalists.
Oct 30 Fierce fighting between British Indian troops and Indonesian nationalists in Surabaya. The Indonesians use Japanese tanks.
October In secret talks between Van Mook and Sukarno and Hatta, the latter rejects out of hand the proposal to form a federal Commonwealth with the Netherlands.
Nov 13 The CNIC 'elects' Sukarno as President of Republik Indonesia.
Nov 14 Sjahrir becomes prime minister of the Republik's.
Nov 20 Queen Wilhelmina reiterates the Dutch goal of creating a federated Indonesian state in which all regions and the Netherlands are partners.
Nov 26 Nationalists murder 120 Indonesians, including women and children, on Bali.
Dec 30 First marines sent from the Netherlands, land on Java.

Some concentration camp survivors still held by mid 1947

Allied aim to free Dutch civilians hostage to own political interests

The liberation of the Netherlands has been described as an event with plenty of emotion, joy and drama. Fifty years later, the anniversary celebrations became the party of the century. The end of the conflict in the Dutch East Indies meant, however, that another harrowing one got underway. When the Japanese surrendered abruptly and went from being oppressors to becoming the prisoners' protectors, new dangers and more terror were in the making. What should have been a liberation from the death camps, turned into the 'Bersiap period', when another set of nationalists - also called Republicans - showed their callous disregard for humanity. How else does one explain the ambush and slaughter of a convoy of evacuating women and children trying to reach Surabaya? Or why at camp Ambarawa internees were made targets for a hand grenade-tossing party? For what reason were the Indonesian-Christian villagers of Depok virtually annihilated? What else was behind the murder of 460 Dutch and Amboinese people in Magelang, or the killing in cold blood of the 22 British survivors of a plane crash at Bekassi? To say nothing of the 120 Indonesians who were killed on Bali and the systematic slaughter of Indonesian civil servants in several other locations! What had they done? Or why was it, that by mid 1947 some civilian internees of the Japanese - two years after the surrender - still had not seen freedom? While the Allies were reluctant to commit manpower and equipment to help end the chaos, Dutch authorities were frustrated at every turn, allowing the political correctness of the late 1940's - anti-colonialism - to extract its price in lives.


Jan 01, 1946 Emperor Hirohito qualifies his status as a deity in Japan.
January Nationalists kill numerous civic leaders in Atjeh, northern Sumatra. Slaughter continues under local Batak christians of whom 7,000 get killed in the weeks following.
Feb 10 Dutch government simultaneously announces in The Hague, London, Washington plan to form a commonwealth in which Indonesia will become a partner, in principle acknowledges Indonesia's right to self-determination.
Mar 02 Dutch marines land on eastern Bali.
Mar 03 The British tip off Sjahrir of impending arrival of Dutch troops.
Mar 06 Concept of new Japanese constitution, written under supervision of the Allies, limits power of emperor.
Mar 09 Nine battalions of Dutch marines land at Batavia and Semarang.
Apr 10 Japanese elect a parliament, led by moderates.
Apr 23 Negotiations with Indonesians begin at Hoge Veluwe, prove fruitless.
April Evacuees from nationalist-held areas start arriving in enclaves on Java which are supervised by the British. By July 1947, about 38,000 Dutch civilians, 10,000 Chinese and an unknown number of Amboinese had relocated.
May 02 Dutch government re-iterates willingness to form a federated commonwealth with the Indies; expresses willingness to concede some territory on Java to nationalists.
May Nationalists turn their wrath on the Chinese of Tangerang (West Java), kill 700.
Jun 03 Allies start war crimes tribunal in Tokyo against 28 former Japanese leaders who led their country into World War II, Axis treaty.
Jun 07 Sukarno declares state of emergency on Java.
Jun 29 In an effort to expand his power, Sukarno extends a state of emergency to entire Archipelago.
Jul 01 Members of Indonesian cabinet kidnapped from hotel in Surabaya, freed the following day.
Jul 16 Van Mook meets with native delegates from all parts of Archipelago, at Malino, Celebes. Absent are Java and Sumatra.
Sep 17 First contingent of Zeven December Divisie to report for departure to the Indies, almost 40 percent (of 3,000) stays away. General Kruls warns of prosecution against deserters, more conscripts show up. Dutch communists and sympathizers agitate for Indonesia's independence.
Sep 22 Opponents of sending soldiers to the Indies rally in Amsterdam, one demonstrator dies in clashes.
Sep 24 Departure of troop ship Boissevain, despite strike in Amsterdam harbour. Desertion rate still at 15%. Strong protests continue throughout the western part of the Netherlands. September Dutch left-wing film maker Ivens' documentary Indonesia calling hits theatres in Australia. Movie features successful boycott against Dutch ships by Indonesian seafarers and gets rated a morale booster to supporters of fledgling independence movement. Government withdraws Ivens' passport.
Oct 15 Dutch authorities and Indonesian leaders reach a truce, army commander Sudirman refuses to adhere.
Nov 15 Four months of negotiations produces tentative Linggadjati Accord, calling for a United States of Indonesia and a Netherlands-Indonesia Union with the Dutch queen as figure head. Dutch left-wing parties support deal, the right does not.
Nov 30 Mountbatten-led British troops leave Java and Sumatra.
Dec 20 Dutch parliament supports Linggadjati Accord.
Dec 24 Conference on Bali announces formation of East Indonesia.


Mar 25, 1947 After intense debate, both parties sign the Linggadjati Accord in Batavia.
Apr 15 To transmit to the Dutch abroad, authorities announce formation of Radio Nederland Wereldomroep.
Jun 05 American secretary of state George C. Marshall announces outline of aid to Europe in speech at Harvard.
Jul 20 While the Netherlands teeters on the edge of a serious nation-wide, financial crisis, Dutch troops launch 'first police action' on Java, Sumatra and Borneo, and make large gains on nationalists. Dutch cabinet claims Indonesians broke Linggadjati Accord in over 1,000 instances. Move aims to restore production on corporate farms and earn foreign currency. Police action, seen as a move to bolster colonial rule, causes widespread, international opposition.
Jul 31 The Dutch East Indies put on agenda of UN's Security Council.
Aug 01 Security Council accepts Australian proposal to end hostilities in Indonesia.
Aug 04 Police action ends.
Aug 15 British India receives independence and gets divided in a Hindu state (India) and a Muslim state (Pakistan). Violent clashes between opposing groups. Both states join British Commonwealth.
Aug 24 United Nations forms commission to help settle the Dutch-Indonesian conflict.
Oct 01 Dutch journalist H.A. Lunshof in court case answers for revealing secrets of Linngadjati Accord.
Dec 08 Dutch and Indonesian officials meets with UN commission.


Jan 13, 1948 Prime Minister Beel issues statement following visit to the Dutch East Indies.

Jan 17 With the help of the UN commission on board of the American ship Renville, Dutch and Indonesian combatants agree to a truce. A large part of Java remains with the nationalists who also battle with communist opponents.
Feb 23 At Bandung, the third West-Java Conference starts.
Mar 09 Interim Indonesian federal government gets installed at Batavia.
May 12 Queen Wilhelmina announces abdication in favour of her daughter Juliana.
Jul 07 In response to constitutional changes prompted by Linggadjati Accord, the Dutch hold general elections: Labour and the communists each lose two seats in new Parliament.
Jul 20 Van Mook receives instructions for second Dutch police action to combat nationalists.
Aug 31 The Dutch celebrate Queen Wilhelmina's 50th anniversary as monarch.
Sep 06 Princess Juliana takes oath of office, becomes Queen.
Sep 18 After repeated clashes, Indonesian communists break ranks with Sukarno and Republicans. Conflict enters history as the Madioen rebellion.
Oct 01 Sukarno puts down Madioen rebels.
Oct 14 Semarang-born Lt. Governor General Van Mook pressured into resignation for what the Dutch cabinet labels his 'independent position as negotiator with nationalists'.
Oct 26 Parliament debates emergency legislation concerning Indonesia, appoints former Prime Minister Beel special envoy.
Nov 04 Beel assumes post in Batavia.
Nov 25 Dutch delegation meets with representatives of Indonesian states.
Dec 19 Amid claims of violations of Accord, Dutch troops launch second police action, this time on Java and on Sumatra, arrest Sukarno and other members of Indonesian cabinet, make substantial territorial gains. Action hit in international press.
Dec 31 On Java, Police action ends.

Warring factions try to fill power vacuum all over continent Aftermath WWII in Asia marked by instability

The Dutch government was not the only one facing difficulties in re-asserting lost authority in the Asian colonies. The French had serious problems in Indochina and already for years, the British had experienced difficulties on the Indian subcontinent and in the Middle East. Several liberated Asian countries had to deal with internal conflicts: China, Thailand, Burma and Korea. While all this was going on, Indonesia officially became independent, but soon had internal conflicts of its own. Meanwhile, the Dutch were plagued by Indonesia's insistence on discarding federalism for centralism and by that new country's demand that the Dutch-governed part of New Guinea be surrendered.


Jan 05, 1949 Police action on Sumatra ends. To date, Dutch military post-war presence in Indonesia took the lives of 149 marines, 486 KNIL-soldiers and 1,021 Dutch army soldiers and officers.
Jan 06 Dutch Prime Minister Drees arrives in Batavia for consultations.
Jan 28 The UN's Security Council calls on the Dutch government to end conflict in Indonesia, release Sukarno and cabinet members.
Mar 01 Republican troops retake centre of Djokjakarta.
Mar 08, 1949 The French government recognizes independence of Vietnam within a French Union to consist of Laos and Cambodia as well.
Mar 12 The see-saw battle in Burma between government troops and rebels from the autonomous state of Karen continues when the Karen occupy Mandalay. Burma offers the rebels amnesty if they put down their weapons.
Mar 19 Participating countries publish text of the North Atlantic Accord.
Apr 03 Burmese troops recapture most of Mandalay.
Apr 04 In Washington, 12 countries agree to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Apr 05 Combattants in China, the nationalists and the communists start peace negotiations.
Apr 08 Conflict in Burma flares up again.
Apr 23 Communists capture southern Chinese capital Nanjing.
May 07 In Batavia, negotiators sign the 'Van Royen - Roem Accord' which prepares the way for the Round Table Conference (RTC) at The Hague. Indonesian nationalists agree to lay down weapons to help restore order. Indonesian leaders return to Djokjakarta.
May 18 Former prime minister Beel resigns as special envoy to Indonesia, Dr. Lovink takes over.
Jun 08 Siam changes name to Thailand.
Jun 30 Dutch troops pull back from Djokjakarta.
Jul 12 A KLM aircraft flies into with hill near Bombay, killing 45.
Jul 20 First stage of inter-Indonesian conference starts at Djokjakarta.
Aug 03 Indonesian leadership announces a truce.
Aug 23 RTC at The Hague begins, Hatta represents Indonesia.
Aug 24 NATO becomes reality when last one of member-states ratifies treaty.
Sep 21 Mao Tsetung announces creation of People's Republic of China.
Oct 02 First units of 7 December Divisie leave Indonesia.
Oct 15 Chinese communists take Canton.
Nov 02 RTC concludes at the Ridderzaal.
Nov 26 India accepts a new constitution.
Dec 07 Chinese nationalists complete repatriation from mainland to Formosa.
Dec 09 Second Chamber of Dutch parliament approves for transfer of power in the Dutch East Indies.
Dec 27 Queen Juliana signs transfer of power legislation at Amsterdam in the presence of Hatta, declaring Indonesia independent and the start of the Netherlands-Indonesia Union.
Dec 28 Sukarno receives tumultuous welcome in Jakarta.
Dec 31 Eighteen countries recognize new (federal) state of Indonesia. Click here to continue the chronology in Part II.